November 2010
Feeding Facts

Feeding Facts

As we turn our attention to fall, cattle producers realize winter cannot be far away. This is the time when cattle producers need to make decisions on how they will supplement their cattle during the next several months.

We have recently discussed the need to determine the nutritional value of your forage before making any further decisions. The fact remains most stored forages alone will not meet the nutritional requirements of brood cows during the cold days of winter. The cow’s requirement for both protein and energy will be at its highest level during the winter months.

Also, at this time, most producers hay crops will be lower in energy and protein than the grass cattle consumed in the spring and early summer. The combination of higher requirements and lower nutritional value of your base feeding program leads to the need for additional supplementation.

While a brood cow and calf can survive on hay alone, it is important for producers to provide additional nutritional supplements to these cows so they will maintain proper body condition, produce a higher quantity of milk for calf growth, breed back in a timely fashion and perform at a level acceptable to the producer.

With this in mind, and with higher input cost this year, it is important to select a supplement that will best meet the needs of the cow herd at the lowest cost per head. It is very important we do not select a supplement solely on the initial cost of that product. I encourage you to consider all options before selecting a supplement based on the ton cost of that supplement.

A cow can consume around 3 percent of her body weight per-head per-day in feed on a dry-matter basis. A cow nursing a calf on a cold, winter day will have a requirement of 15 pounds of energy (TDN) and 3.5 pounds of protein per-head per-day. Also, keep in mind, as the air temperature drops below 50 and especially when cattle are wet, the requirement for additional amounts of energy to maintain body temperature is increased.


Product Protein     % TDN     %Cost/Ton     Cost/Pound

Corn                          7.8%          80%            $260 .13

Soyhulls                    10%           65%            $190 .095

Gluten                       15%           70%            $190 .095

AFC 13%                  13%           70%             $220 .11

AFC TP                     11%           68%             $240 .12

Most hay crops in Alabama will test out to be around 9 to 9.5 percent protein and 45-50 percent total digestible nutrients (TDN). Let’s assume the average cow herd in Alabama is provided an average of 25 pounds of hay per-cow per-day. Based on average-quality, Alabama forages (9.5 percent protein, 48 percent TDN), this calculates out to be 2.3 pounds of protein and 12 pounds of TDN provided from hay. This will leave a need of an additional 1.2 pounds of protein and 3 pounds of energy to come from supplementation to meet their nutritional requirement.

As a producer, you now have a decision to make concerning the most cost effective supplementation for your herd and your pocket book. Today, you are trying to decide between corn, soy hulls, corn gluten, AFC 13% with Bovatec® and AFC T.P. Cattle Ration as your most cost-effective winter supplementation. Let’s look at each product to consider our options. The following table will provide you with the needed information to make the very best decision:

From this example, a cow 1.2 pounds short of protein and 3 pounds short of energy would need to be provided the following amount of each supplement to meet the additional daily requirements of protein and TDN over what is provided from hay:

1. Corn: Protein: 1.2 pounds short/.078(corn protein percentage) = 15.3 pounds
   TDN: 3 pounds short/.80 (corn TDN percentage) = 3.75 pounds
   Bottom Line: Must feed 15.3 pounds of corn to meet both protein and TDN requirements
   Cost: 15.3 pounds X .13 pound = $1.99 per-head per-day

2. Soyhulls: Protein: 1.2 pounds short/.10 (soyhull protein percentage) = 12 pounds
   TDN: 3 pounds short/.65 (soyhull TDN percentage) =4.6 pounds
   Bottom Line: Must feed 12 pounds of soyhulls to meet both protein and TDN requirements
   Cost: 12 X .095 pound = $1.14 per-head per-day

3. Gluten: Protein: 1.2 pounds short/.15 (gluten protein percentge) = 8 pounds
   TDN: 3 pounds short/.70 (gluten TDN percentage) =4.2 pounds
   Bottom Line: Must feed 8 pounds of gluten to meet both protein and energy requirements
   Cost: 8 X .095 pound = .76 cents per-head per-day

4. AFC 13%: Protein: 1.2 pounds short/.13 (13% protein percentage) = 9.2 pounds
   TDN: 3 pounds short/.65 =4.6 pounds
   Bottom Line: Must feed 9.2 pounds of 13% to meet both protein and TDN requirements
   Cost: 9.2 X .11 pound = $1.01 per-head per-day   

5. AFC T.P: Protein: 1.2 pounds short/.11 (T.P. protein percentage) = 10.9 pounds
   TDN: 3 pounds short/.65=4.6 pounds
   Bottom Line: Must feed 10.9 pounds of T.P. to meet both protein and TDN requirements
   Cost: 10.9 X .12 pound = $1.30 per-head per-day

As you can see from the above example, your most economical feed on a ton basis is not always your cheapest cost on a per-head per-day basis. As a producer, you must also consider the fact that although AFC 13% and AFC T.P was higher than some on a cost per-head per-day basis, these two feeds are formulated in a way to provide not only protein and TDN but also minerals and vitamins to your cattle in the most useable form. While commodities may be lower on a ton basis, you do not have additional mineral and vitamins along with the inconsistency of the by-product. These are all options you must consider when making your feeding decisions.

I encourage each of you during these difficult economical times to consider your winter feeding program based upon meeting the requirements of your herd and not based upon the cheapest product on a per-ton basis. If I can answer any questions or if you need additional information on other feeds or by-products, please contact me at (256) 947-7886 or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Jimmy Hughes is AFC’s animal nutritionist.